Total Imports value at N2, 112.3 billion in Q4 2017 was 15.1% less than Q3 2017 Figure (N2,487.8 billion) and 8.5% lower than Q4, 2016 (N2,307.6 billion). Total imports for full year 2017 stood at N9, 562.7 billion which was 8.5% lower than the 2016 trade import value of N8, 817.5 billion.
Imported Agricultural goods decreased by 1.7 % in Q4 2017 (N227.4 billion) compared to Q3 2017 (N231.4 billion) but increased by 15.9% when compared to Q4, 2016 (N196.2 billion). For full year, 2017, imported agricultural goods increased by 35.09% to N886.7 billion from N656.4 billion in 2016.
Raw materials imports in Q4 2017 (N279.4 billion) were 2.1 % lower than Q3, 2017 value (N285.3 billion), and 2.7% lower than Q4 2016 (N287.2 billion). For full year 2017, imported raw materials increased by 19.3% to N1,128.3 billion from 945.7 billion in 2016.
Solid minerals imports grew by 5.19% in Q4 2017 (N15.2 billion) over the Q3, 2017 value (N14.5 billion), and 9.2% over Q4 2016 (N13.9 billion). For full year 2017, imported solid minerals increased by 372.2% to N235.1 billion from N49.7 billion in 2016.
Energy goods imports grew significantly by 950% in Q4 2017 (N138.1 million), higher than Q3, 2017 value (N13.15 million), and 57176% over Q4 2016 (N0.24 million). For full year 2017, imported energy goods increased to N187.17 million from N8.07 million in 2016.
Manufactured goods imports declined in Q4 2017 by 0.28% (N1,209.9 billion) in comparison to Q3 2017 (N1,213.3 billion), but grew by 10% in comparison to Q4 2016 (N1,099.5 billion). For full year 2017, imported manufactured products decreased by 0.06% to N4,642.4 billion from N4,645.1 billion in 2016.
Other oil products imports were 48.86 % lower in value in Q4 2017 than Q3 2017, and 46.5% lower than the value recorded in Q4 2016. For full year 2017, other oil product imports increased by 5.93% over 2016.
Total value of export at N3,910.6 billion in Q4 2017 grew by 9.35% over Q3 2017, and by 31.27% over Q4 2016. For full year 2017,total exports of N13,598.2 billion was 59.47% higher than for 2016 with a value of N8,527.4 billion
Agricultural goods exports grew in value by 54.9% in Q4 2017 (N44.7 billion) in comparison to Q3 2017 (N28.8 billion), and by 170.9% in comparison to Q4 2016 (N16.5 billion). For full year 2017, agriculture exports grew 180.7% (N170.4 billion) above the value in 2016 (N60.7 billion)
Raw material exports in Q4 2017 (N37.8 billion) were 43.2% more in value than Q3,2017 (N26.4 billion) and 71.7% more than Q4, 2016 (N22.0 billion). For full year 2017, raw material exports grew 154.2% (N112.9 billion) above the value in 2016 (N44.4 billion)
Solid minerals exports in Q4 2017 grew by 55.0% in value when compared to Q3 2017, and by 473.5% in value when compared to same period last year Q4 2016. For full year 2017, solid minerals exports grew 565% (N77.2 billion) above the value in 2016 (N11.6 billion)
Manufactured goods exports in Q4, 2017 (N55.3 billion) were 28.1% more than the value attained in Q3, 2017 (N43.2 billion) but declined by 18.03% in comparison to Q4 2016 (N67.5 billion). For full year 2017, exports of manufactured goods grew 26.8% (N232.05 billion) above the value in 2016 (N182.9 billion)
Crude Oil exports in Q4 2017 were 9.51% more than the value recorded in Q3 2017 and 34.2% higher than Q4, 2016 For full year 2017, crude oil exports grew 57.6% above the value in 2016
Other oil products exports increased by 0.45% over Q3 2017, and by 9.3% over the same period last year (Q4 2016). For full year 2017, exports of other oil products grew 57.75% above the value in 2016.
Total Trade and Trade Balance in Q4 2017
Total trade recorded for Q4 2017 was N6.022.93 billion which represented a decline of 0.7% over the Q3 2017, and an increase of 13.9% over the same period last year Q4 2016). For full year 2017, total trade was N23,160.9 billion which is 33.5% higher when compared to the value in 2016 of N17,344.9 billion
Trade balance, accordingly, stood at a surplus of N1,798.31 billion in Q4 2017 compared to the surplus of N1,088.33 billion recorded in the preceding quarter and the surplus of N671.30 billion in the corresponding quarter last year. For full year 2017, trade balance stood at N4,035.5 billion compared to a negative trade balance of -N290.1 billion in 2016
Major Export trading partners and % share to Q4, 2017 Export trade
Major import trading partners and % share to Q4, 2017 Import trade
Major traded Agricultural Exports in Q4 2017
Sesamum Seeds (N15.79 billion)
Nigerian Cocoa beans (N14.53 billion)
Frozen shrimps and prawns (N4.5 billion)
Flour and meals of Soya bean (N3.55 billion)
Cashew nuts, in shell (N2.12 billion)
Total export in Q4, 2017 stood at N3,910.6 billion representing a 9.35% growth compared to Q3, 2017 and a 31.28% growth compared to the corresponding quarter of 2016. In contrast, total imports decreased to N2,112.3 billion, representing a decline of 15.1% from the last quarter (Q3 2017) and an 8.5% decline compared with the same period last year. Total exports for 2017 stood at N13,598.2 billion compared to N8,527.4 billion.
Trade balance of Nigeria in 2017, Q4 was positive at N1,798.3 billion, compared to N1,088.3 in Q3 2017. This continued the trend of increasing exports and declining imports which started in Q2 2017. Trade balance for 2017 stood at a surplus of N4,035.5 billion compared to a trade deficit of –N290.1 billion in 2016.
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Exports in the Fourth quarter were still oil dependent. Crude oil exports were recorded N3,254.6 billion in the fourth quarter and it remained the highest proportion of total exports (83.2%). Crude oil exports grew by 9.51% over the last quarter (Q3, 2017), and by 34.2% when compared to the same quarter last year (Q4 2016). For 2017, crude exports stood at N11, 026.6 billion (81.1% of total exports in 2017) compared to N6,996.5 billion (82.0% of total exports in 2016). This indicates a marginal decline in the share of crude exports in total exports between 2016 and 2017.
Non-crude oil exports at N656.0 billion in Q4 2017, also grew by 8.6% over the last quarter, and 18.5% over the same period last year; although not as rapidly as crude oil exports. Non crude oil exports accounted for16.8% of total exports.
The non-oils component on the other was valued at N171.3billion in Q4 2017 representing 4.38% of total export, slightly higher than it was last quarter at 3.4% of total export.
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Imports Classified by Standard International Trade Classification and Country of Origin
Nigeria’s import trade stood at N 2,112.3 billion at the end of Q4, 2017, the highest components of which were Machinery & transport equipment at N684.9 billion (32.4% of total imports); Mineral fuel at N380.4billion (18.0% of total imports) and Chemical and selected products at N347.9 billon (16.5% of total imports).
Food and live animals, and Manufactured products also contributed noticeably with values worth N337.5 billion (16.0%) and N199.1 billion (9.4%). Importation of mineral fuel dropped significantly (-48.8%) from the previous quarter and the same quarter last year (-46.5%). Together Machinery & transport, Mineral fuel, Chemical and selected products, Food and live animals, and Manufactured products account for 92.3% of all imports in Q4 2017.
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Europe and Asia continue to dominate imports into Nigeria, jointly representing 80.3% of total imports in Q4 2017, with N850.86 billion in value arriving from Europe and N845.05 billion in value arriving from Asia. Imports from Europe have however declined notably in value, declining 24.6% from N1,119.84 billion the previous quarter (Q3 2017) and 24% from N1,127.89 billion the same period last year (Q4 2016). The Americas region was Nigeria’s third largest import trading partner in the period under review, representing 14.1% of total imports and a value of N303.18 billion.
Imports from Africa stood at N86.98 billion, representing 4.1% of total imports, out of which ECOWAS accounted for N17.99 billion (20% of imports from Africa). This represented a 15.1% decline in imports from Africa from N102.36 billion recorded in the previous quarter, and a 5.2% growth from N82.65 billion recorded in the same period last year (Q4 2017).
Nigeria’s largest import partners in Q4 2017 are China, Belgium, United States, India, and the Netherlands, which respectively accounted for N465.13 billion (22 %), N191.05 billion (9.0 %), N189.4 billion or (8.9 %), N135.4 billion (6.4 %), and N 125.2 billion (5.9%).
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Exports Classified by Standard International Trade Classification and Country of Origin
The value of the export trade continues its growth trend totaling N 3,910.6 billion in Q4, 2017 representing an increase of 9.4 %, over the value of N3,576.2 billion recorded in the preceding quarter, and an increase of 31.3% over the value of N2,978.9 billion recorded in the same quarter last year (Q4 2016).
The structure of the export trade is heavily dominated by crude oil, liquified natural gas, and other petroleum gases, which contributed N3,699.6 billion or 94.6% to the value of total domestic export trade in Q4 2017. Crude oil alone contributed N3,254.6 billion, representing 83.2% of total exports during the period under review, while natural liquefied gas contributed N 416.6 billion, representing 10.6% of the total exports in Q4 2017.
Exports by section similarly shows that Nigeria exported mainly mineral products, which accounted for N 3,772.4 billion or 96.5% of the total export value for Q4 2017. Other products exported by Nigeria includes “Prepared foodstuffs; beverages spirits and vinegar; tobacco” at N36.7 billion or 0.9% of total exports, and “Products of the chemical and allied industries” at ₦ 25.5 billion or 0.7% of total exports.
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In the period under review, Europe and Asia were the top regions for Nigeria’s exports, accounting for N1,538.6 billion (39.3% of total exports), and N1,033.8 billion (26.4% of total exports). This represents a 18.9% growth and a 0.1% decline respectively over the previous quarter; and a 27.1% and 16.9% growth respectively when compared to the same quarter last year (Q4 2017). The Americas region was Nigeria’s third largest exporting partner in the period under review, representing 22.5% of all exports with a value of N879.19 billion.
The growth in total exports in Q4 2017 is buoyed by exports to the Americas which increased by 6.3% and 112.3% in Q3 2017 from Q3 2017 and Q4 2016 respectively. Value of Exports to Africa were recorded at N382.8 billion naira during the period under review, among which N152.5 billion naira of goods were exported to ECOWAS countries (39.9% of exports to African countries).
India remained the top exporting partner for Nigeria in the reviewing quarter. The five top exporting partners are India, United States, Netherlands, France, and Spain, whose export values stood at N615.39 billion (15.7%), N502.22 billion (12.8%), N412.86 billion (10.6%), N391.45 billion (10.0%), and N296.18 billion (7.6%) respectively. These five countries accounted for 56.7% of the total exports in Q4 2017.
Export/Imports Products Classified by Sectors Q4,2017
Agricultural Goods Sector
The total value of trade in agricultural goods in Q4 2017 stood at N 272.2 billion representing 4.52% of total trade in Q4 2017. Agricultural exports represented 1.14 % of total exports, and 10.8% of total imports in Q4 2017.
Exports of Agricultural goods in Q4 2017 was valued at N44.7billion, a 54.9% growth over the value of N28.9billion recorded in Q3, 2017; and a 170.9% growth over the value of N16.5 billion recorded in Q4 2016. In terms of trading partners, agricultural product exports in Q4, 2017 went to mostly to Asia (52.4%) and Europe (39.9%), while the Americas and Africa followed with 5.2% and 2.11% respectively.
In terms of the type of agricultural product, agriculture exports in Q4 2017 were driven by the export of Sesamum seeds which accounted for N15.8billion or 35.3% of the total agriculture exports and 0.40% of total exports. During the quarter under review, sesamum seeds worth N6.3 billion were exported to China, N3.0 billion to Turkey, and N2.4 billion to Japan.
Sesamum seed exports were followed by Nigerian Cocoa beans exports valued at N14.5 billion or 33% of agriculture exports and 0.37% of total exports. Nigerian Cocoa beans were exported in Q4 2017 principally to the Netherlands (N7.4 billion), Malaysia (N2.9 billion), Indonesia (N2.3 billion). Other major agricultural products included Frozen shrimps worth N4.0 billion or 9% of agriculture exports which were exported mainly to Netherlands (N1.9 billion), Belgium (N0.6 billion), and Vietnam (N0.6 billion); Flour and meals of Soya beans worth N3.6 billion (8.0% of agriculture exports) exported mainly to Spain (N2.5 billion) and France (N0.99 billion); and Cashew nuts worth N2.1 billion (4.7% of agriculture exports) exported mainly to Vietnam (N2.1 billion).
With regards to imports, agricultural imports valued at N227.5 billion were imported in Q4 2017 compared to N231.5 billion in Q3 2017 and N231.8 billion in Q2 2017. This represents a 1.7% decrease over Q3 2017 and a 15.9% increase over Q4 2016. Nigerian agricultural imports in Q4 2017 accounted for 10.8% of total imports in the quarter under review.
Major agriculture imports in Q4 2017 included Durum wheat (seeds) worth N313.2 billion from United States, N132.2 from Russia, N128.1 billion from Canada; Durum wheat (not in seeds) worth N140.4 billion from Russia, N97.1 billion from the United States, N83.5 billion from Canada, N7.2 billion from Australia; as well as Herrings worth N47.2 billion from Netherlands, N21.7 billion from Russia; and Mackerel meat, frozen worth N44.1 billion from Netherlands.
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Solid Minerals Sector
The total value of solid minerals trade in Q4 2017 stood at N39.10 billion representing 0.65% of total trade in Q4 2017. Solid minerals exports in Q4 2017 stood at N23.9 billion representing 0.61% of total exports in Q4 2017. The value of solid minerals exports in Q4 2017 was 55.0% higher than the value of N15.4 billion recorded in Q3 2017 and 473.5% more than the value of N4.4 billion in Q4 2016.
In Q4 2017, Nigeria exported N14.7 billion worth of Naphtalene to the Netherlands and N1.5 billion to Togo. Nigeria also exported other cement in bags worth N2.7 billion to Niger Republic, and N0.7billion to Ghana; and other cement bulk worth N1.9 billion to Togo, and N1.3 billion to Ghana. Other Niobium, tantalum, vanadium ores and concentrates worth N270.2 million were exported to China.
With respect to imports, solid minerals imports valued at N15.3 billion were imported in Q4 2017, representing 0.72% of total imports in Q4 2017. The value of solid minerals imports in Q4 2017 was 5.19% more than the value of N14.5 billion recorded in Q3 2017 and 9.2% higher than the same period last year Q4 2016.
Nigeria imported Plasters of Calcined Gypsum worth N3.03 billion from Turkey, N1.05 from Tunisia, N0.60 billion from Egypt; Crude salt worth N2.2 billion from Brazil; Gypsum; anhydrite whether or not coloured, with/without small quantities of accelerators worth N2.6 billion was imported from China; and Granite worth N99.8million was imported from India in the period under review Q4 2017.
Manufactured Goods Sector
The total value trade in manufactured goods stood at N55.4 billion representing 1.42% of total trade in Q4, 2017. Exports of manufactured goods in Q4 2017 increased 28.1% over the value recorded in Q3 2017 but decreased by 18.0% when compared to the value recorded in the same period last year (Q4 2016).
In Q4, 2017, Nigeria exported Polyethylene to China (N5.2 billion), Belgium (N1.3 billion), Germany (N0.9 billion), Togo (N0.8 billion), Vietnam (N0.7 billion); Vessels and other floating structures to the United States (N3.0 billion), Cameroon (N2.8 billion), Singapore (N2.5 billion), Iceland (N1.2 billion); and Cocoa butter, fat and oil to Netherlands (N1.8 billion), Germany (N1.1 billion), France (N0.8 billion), United Kingdom (N0.6 billion). Other products exported in the quarter under review are Cigarettes containing tobacco, mainly to Ivory Coast (N1.3 billion), and Stuffed Pasta, mainly to Ghana (N2.1 billion).
Imports of manufactured goods were 0.3% lower than the value recorded in the previous quarter, and 10.0% higher than the values recorded in the same period last year. Manufactured goods imports in Q4 2017 was dominated by imports of Used vehicles from the United States (N31.3 billion); Imported motorcycles and cycles from India (N21.6 billion), China (N10.4 billion); Connectors for optical fibres from the United Kingdom (N22.0 billion), France (0.29 billion), and United States (0.177). Other manufactured goods products imported during the period under review Q4 2017 are Milk & cream in powder from New Zealand (N6.3 billion), and Machines for the reception & transmission of voice etc., mainly from China (N11.5 billion), and Sweden (N6.5 billion).
Raw Material Goods Sector
The total value of trade in raw materials in Q4 2017 stood at N37.9billion representing 5.3% of total trade within the period. Exports of raw material goods in Q4 2017 grew by 43.2% from the previous quarter, and 71.7% when compared to the same period last year (Q4 2016).
During the quarter, Nigeria exported raw material products like Urea to Brazil (N20.1 billion), Argentina (N2.4 billion); Leather further prepared after tanning mainly to Italy (N2.7 billion); Technically specified natural rubber to Spain (N0.73 billion), France (N0.47 billion), Malaysia (N0.44 billion), and Netherlands (N0.36 billion). Other raw material goods exported include Leather further prep after tanning – dressed leather of sheep, etc. to Spain (N0.60 billion), China (N0.55 billion), India (N0.53 billion), Italy (N0.46 billion); and Cocoa shells primarily to Spain (N0.36 billion), and Netherlands (N0.30 billion).
Import of raw material goods in Q4 2017 declined both when compared to Q3 2017 (-2.1%) and to the same quarter last year (-2.7%). Raw material imports was dominated by Cane sugar imports mainly from Brazil worth N44.3 billion. Other imports included Mixtures of odoriferous substance mainly from Ireland (N11.5 billion); Milk preparations containing vegetable fats from Ireland (N6.0 billion), Australia (N3.1 billion), New Zealand (N1.2 billion), Malaysia (N0.9 billion); Tobacco from Brazil (N4.7 billion), India (N3.8 billion), Germany (N1.5 billion), Italy (N0.40 billion); and Mineral or chemical fertilizers from the United Arab Emirates (N4.3 billion.
Trade Intensity in Q4 2017
Export Intensity Index with Five Major Trading Partners
The export intensity index compares the share of exports to each country in Nigeria’s total exports, with the share of world exports going to that country, and therefore gives a measure of the importance of that country to Nigeria as an export destination. A higher number denotes a stronger relationship, and an index of one indicates that exports to that country are what would be expected given global trade patterns.
The export intensity index for Nigeria in Q4, 2017 showed Nigeria had a strong export relationship with India, with export intensities of 5.42, 4.59, and 2.71 for October, November and December respectively. Spain also recorded relatively higher export intensity index than the other three major trading partners with 2.94, 4.37 and 0.70 in the three months of the fourth quarter respectively. Notably, export intensity for Netherlands and France was also robust during the period under review, with indices greater than 1 for both countries across the three months of Q4 2017; while exporting intensity for all the top five exporting partners (particularly Spain) was reduced in December 2017.
Import Intensity Index with five Major Trading Partners
The import intensity index for Nigeria in Q4, 2017 showed Nigeria had a relatively robust import (though declining) relationship with India, with import intensities of 4.29, 2.69, and 1.73; and Belgium with import intensities of 4.68, 2.51, and 0.81 for October, November and December respectively. Trade with China and Netherlands during the period were modest with a high of 1.58 for China in October 2017, and 1.65 for Netherlands in November 2017. Import index for the United States was the lowest recorded amongst all top five importing partners with indices 0.92, 0.69, and 0.46 recorded in the three months of Q4 2017. Importing intensity was reduced for top five importing partners in the period under review.
Trade by Mode of Transport
In Q4 2017, Nigeria’s major mode of transporting its goods to partner countries was by water. Transport of goods by water accounted for N3, 896.9 billion naira or 99.65% of total export. The goods exported through the road were valued at N11.6 billion naira while goods exported through the air totaled N2.1 billion naira.
For goods imported into Nigeria, the major mode of transporting goods into the country was through Water transport. The water transport accounted for N1,955.5 billion naira or 92.58% of total imports. Goods that entered the country through Road transport accounted for N13.2 billion or 0.62% of total imports; while those that entered through Air transport accounted for N143.5 billion naira or 6.8 % of total imports.
Trade by Custom Ports and Post
The leading port of operation during the quarter was the Apapa Port. Goods worth N3.7 trillion exited the country through this port. The next leading port of operation was PORT HARCOURT (1) through which goods worth N56.5billion were shipped to partner countries. Tin Can Island was also very active during the period under review and goods worth N39.5billion exited the country through that port. Other active ports in operation during the period were Port Harcourt (3), Muhammed Murtala Cargo, Seme Border Post, and Kebbi Area Command. Similarly, goods that entered Nigeria through Apapa Port was valued at N991.8 billion, Tin can Island at N500 billion, TINCAN BONDED WARE/HOUSE at N136.4billion, and Port Harcourt (3) at N163.2billion respectively